What is a shark cartilage:
The shark life has already had the history for 400,000,000 years in the ocean, the scientist thinks it has the so big existence ability, is because the shark contain strong immune system.The immune system of the shark, not only the ability is anti-virus,the anti- infects, return ability anti-cancer.The marine biology house, once many transplant the cancer cell to the shark body, but did not can have any function.The skeleton of the shark is mostly constituted by cartilage, many expertses believe this a great deal of cartilage makes the shark become it ability's matching the fast of the wound, few on the sick list animal, own in addition a set of resist the immune system that various diseases invade severely, this makes the shark can be existing 250,000,000 on the earth.
The shark cartilage is constituted by some huge protein fibers of, including 6-7 kinds of much more sticky sugars and glucose ammonia that have to maintain the healthy function.Analyze with the chemistry in purely dry shark cartilage, about 41% mineral quality powder don't,39% protein,12% compound of carbon water,7% water and not to 1% fiber,0.3% fat.The powder did not win to have 60% calcium,40% Aciculite, id not find to have any ingredient of heavy metals.
The important role that sticks to many sugar lies in the lubricant that the help body produces the sticky liquid form, and stimulate the immune system function and other functions.The shark cartilage is the natural anti- inflammation material and the wound of the strong power to match the material in the world currently.
Shark Cartilage is available from numerous manufacturers generically. Branded products include Cartilade (Solgar, BioTherapies, Source Naturals), Mega Shark Cartilage (Twinlab), Sharkilage (Futurebiotics) and BeneFin Shark Cartilage (Lane Labs).
Shark cartilage became popular as a nutritional supplement a few years ago, based on the claim that sharks do not get cancer and that this substance must therefore be useful for the prevention and treatment of cancer. The fact is that sharks do get cancer.Cartilage is a tissue that lacks blood vessels and rarely develops malignancies. Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries, is now known to be important in a number of pathological conditions, including solid tumors, proliferative retinopathy, neovascular glaucoma and rheumatoid arthritis. The process is also important in other physiological events as well, such as neovascularization following coronary artery occlusion.
Reported on the isolation of a fraction from the scapular cartilage of calves, which inhibited the growth of new blood vessels supporting implanted tumors in rabbits. It also stopped the growth of the tumors. Subsequent reports demonstrated a fraction in shark cartilage that also inhibited tumor neovascularization and growth.
The study of angiogenesis inhibitors has become a new field in cancer research. Since the earliest anti-angiogenesis substances discovered were derived from cartilage, research continues looking at cartilage to try to identify and characterize novel anti-angiogenic agents. Because sharks are an abundant source of cartilage, shark cartilage is being used by several research groups.
Sharks have an endoskeleton comprised entirely of cartilage, and while cartilage comprises less than 0.6% of the body weight of calves, it comprises about 6% of the body weight of sharks. Shark cartilage, like other forms of cartilage, is mainly composed of collagen, which participates in giving cartilage its tensile strength, and proteoglycans, themselves composed of a core protein to which is attached polysaccharides known as glycosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides. Proteoglycans impart resilience to cartilage. The main glycosaminoglycans in shark cartilage are the chondroitin sulfates. In addition to collagen and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage contains about 5 to 10% water, a large percentage of calcium and phosphate, and other molecules, several of low molecular weight. These appear to possess anti-angiogenic activity, as well as other activities. These substances are being researched as possible therapeutic candidates.
The present invention relates to cartilage extracts and to a method of producing the same. Shark cartilage extracts having anti-angiogenic, direct anti-tumor proliferating, anti-inflammatory and anti-collagenolytic activities have been obtained by an improved process. The process comprises the steps of obtaining a homogenate of cartilage in an aqueous solution, this homogenate being centrifuged and further fractionated to obtain a total extract having molecules of a molecular weight comprised between 0 to 500 KDa. The composition of the liquid extract has then been investigated by different ways. Further fractionation of this extract led to the preliminary characterization of some of its active components. Due to the multiplicity of biological activities of the total liquid extract, it can be used for treating numerous diseases or conditions such as those having components selected from the group consisting of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation and collagenolysis. This extract has no offensive effect on normal body functions. Therefore, this shark cartilage extract has a very promising therapeutic value. The process for the obtention of cartilage extracts is simple and efficient. The unexpectedly valuable products obtained by this process are therefore an indication of a new and non-obvious process.
Although there is certainly no shortage of testimonials for "miracle" cartilage products that "cure" cancer, the scientific evidence for such effects is lacking. Despite shark and bovine cartilage supplements being touted as "cancer cures," careful scientific study in people with advanced tumors have shown these claims to be wildly optimistic at best and completely bogus in many cases. It is estimated that more than 100,000 U.S. cancer victims have tried shark cartilage, either alone or in conjunction with standard chemotherapy. Unfortunately, the majority of studies which have tested shark cartilage on cancer patients have found little or no effect in slowing disease or improving quality of life. In one recent study, 60 patients with various cancers saw no improvements in tumor size or disease stage. An interesting 1983 report in the prestigious journal, Science, however, indicates that shark cartilage does indeed contain compounds which can inhibit tumor angiogenesis. This means that something in cartilage prevents the growth of new blood vessels toward tumors, thereby restricting tumor growth (the inhibitor is probably not a typical protein, but may be a heat-stable proteoglycan). Whatever this factor happens to be, it turns out that there is quite a lot of it in shark cartilage compared to cartilage from mammalian sources (such as cows). A major problem with the shark cartilage theory of tumor prevention, however, has always been that there was no good clinical proof that this anti-angiogenesis factor could even get into the body when consumed as a dietary supplement. However, studies reported in 1999-2000 suggests that oral administration of liquid cartilage extract delivers a similar anti-angiogenesis effect in humans that has been observed in lab animals and test tube studies. In one study, subjects (29 healthy males) received either a placebo or a liquid shark cartilage extract (7ml or 21ml) each day for 3-4 weeks. Midway through the supplementation period (day 12), a special sponge was inserted subcutaneously (under the skin of each subject’s arm) and removed on Day 23. Researchers then counted the number of cells which had grown into the sponge as an indirect measurement of angiogenesis. Results from the study found that cell density was significantly lower in subjects who had received the liquid cartilage extract compared to subjects who had received the placebo. These results are the first to show that the anti-angiogenic component of cartilage extracts is bioavailable in humans by oral administration and that oral intake of such extracts can actually reduce blood vessel growth in the body.
Although no specific safety studies have been conducted on cartilage extracts, the doses commonly suggested are not expected to cause any significant side effects (or benefits). In some isolated cases, bovine tracheal cartilage has been associated with contamination by thyroid tissue (the trachea is located adjacent to the thyroid gland) and could potentially lead to thyroid hormone toxicity.
At this time, cartilage extracts do not appear to provide significant value as a dietary supplement. As research into this area progresses, perhaps new findings will provide evidence of cartilage extracts in angiogenesis in cancer patients. Until then, consider other supplements with proven benefits in joint health/wound healing (HCP/Gelatin, MSM, SAMe, glucosamine and chondroitin) and cancer prevention (green tea and soy isoflavones).
If you do choose to supplement with cartilage extracts, typical dosage recommendations are likely to be in the range of 250-1000mg/day although significant differences may exist between products.
The immunological serum pattern was found to be in the following parameters:
Increase of 2.14% of the pre-treatment values of the Active Rosette Test (ART), with the values of the Spontaneous Rosette (SRT) being 15.08%. Levels of circulating immunocomplexes were 237% and serum medium con3plement activity (CH-50) was found to be increased by 2.14%.
An overall decrease of serum immunoglobulins did take place. IgA descended down to 8.83%, IgM to 50.50% and IgG to 10.8 1%, as compared to the initial determinations.
Of the group of patients in whom a beneficial effect of shark cartilage was not demonstrated (14), the following humoral values were found:
Hemoglobin levels decreased by 13%, hematocrit levels by 9% and eritrosedimentation rates by 50% ( initial ESR were somewhat higher in this group.)
ART and SRT showed increases of 3.76% and 15.08% respectively, while levels of circulating immunocomplexes increased up to 241%of their initial values and medium serum complement activity was less than I% (exactly 0. 59%).Also, a decrease of circulating immunoglobulins took place; IgA-8.47%, Igm.-24.87% and IgG in 18.9%.
Interactions With Drugs:
Shark cartilage products are rich in calcium. If used with calcium supplements or drugs that raise calcium levels in the blood, such as hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril), shark cartilage may cause serious problems (for example, irregular heartbeats). In theory, shark cartilage may add to the effects of drugs that decrease the growth of blood vessels or healing of wounds. Examples are thalidomide and interferon. Shark cartilage may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised if you also are taking drugs that may lower blood sugar levels. Patients taking oral drugs for diabetes or using insulin should be monitored closely by their health care provider while using shark cartilage. Dosing adjustments may be necessary. In theory, very large doses of shark cartilage may actually increase blood sugar levels.
Interactions With Herbs And Dietary Supplements:
Shark cartilage may lower blood sugar levels. People using other herbs or supplements that may alter blood sugar levels, such as bitter melon (Momordica charantia), should be monitored closely by their health care provider while using shark cartilage. Dosing adjustments may be necessary. In theory, shark cartilage may raise blood sugars levels if taken with glucosamine. Shark cartilage is rich in calcium and should not be combined with calcium supplements. Other trace elements that are found in higher amounts in shark cartilage than in other fishes and in other animal bones include iron, zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, titanium and strontium.
STATEMENT OF THE INVENTION:
The present invention provides a new method of producing cartilage extracts which have the advantage of containing a multiplicity of therapeutically valuable activities. Among those, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-collagenolytic, in vivo anti-tumor proliferating and direct in vitro anti-tumor proliferating activities have been confirmed to be present in satisfying concentrations in a shark cartilage extract. Other activities await identification or confirmation. The effect measured in tumor cell lines was indicating that beside a direct anti-tumor proliferating activities, a cytotoxic activity appears to be present. All activities have been obtained in a liquid extract of shark cartilage, and some of them have been obtained or verified in a solid extract of the same.
The present invention relates to a new process for the obtention of a liquid extract of cartilage having a substantial portion of the biologically active hydrosoluble components present in intact cartilage, which comprises the following steps:
a) homogenizing the cartilage in an aqueous solution in conditions compatible with the preservation of the integrity of said biologically active components until the cartilage is reduced to particles whose size is lower than or equal to about 500 .mu.m, resulting in a mixture of particles and of a crude liquid extract having said biologically active components;
b) centrifuging said homogenate to separate particles from the crude liquid extract; and
c) further separating the crude liquid extract so as to obtain a final liquid extract containing cartilage molecules having a molecular weight lower than or equal to about 500 Kilodaltons.
This new process has the advantage of being easy to perform and efficient. High yields of cartilage extract have been obtained, which extract, particularly obtained from shark cartilage, contains at least all the above-mentioned biological activities. It is preferably performed at cold temperature (about 0 to 10.degree. C.), in non-denaturing conditions (preferably in pure water), at a near neutral pH (about 6 to 8) to maximize the probability of recovering compounds of unknown physico-chemical characteristics. According to this process, cartilage components can be extracted in a low volume of solution (as low as 1 L for 1 Kg of cartilage), and after a short period of homogenization (as short as 10 to 15 minutes). For the recovery of a solid extract, the same process is used, except that the pellet is recovered and lyophilized, disregarding the supernatant.
This invention relates to cartilage extracts, particularly to extracts providing from elasmobranch species, more particularly from shark. The solid extract has shown activity. It may contain collagen and non-hydrosoluble components. It may also contain a residual activity of what was extracted in the total liquid extract. The total liquid extract is very rich in activity. It can be used as such or it can be concentrated. A concentration step which favorizes the maintenance of biological activities has been priviledged. Recourse to methods which could deteriorate the active components like heat-evaporation has been avoided by caution. Ultrafiltration on a membrane having a molecular weight cut-off value of about 1 KDa has been used to concentrate the liquid extract of this invention. As a result, a concentrated extract containing molecules of a molecular weight comprised between about 1 and about 500 KDa was obtained and tested. The total liquid extract (0 to 500 KDa) has been further fractionated to characterize the active components thereof. Numerous fractions have been obtained by different methods. Some of them tested on tumor cell lines have been grossly characterized by their molecular weight and isoelectric point. Others have been assigned an activity, particularly anti-collagenolytic or anti-angiogenic activities. These fractions await complete characterization and identification. Therefore, valuable activities are recovered in a total liquid extract and fractions thereof, which may be advantageously used. In lieu of administering high amounts of powdered cartilage, a more acceptable and enriched extract may now be administered.
The present invention also relates to any therapeutic or cosmetic compositions comprising as an active ingredient one of the above-cartilage extracts. Most interest has been drawn to topical compositions for use in dermatology and cosmetology. This interest comes from the observed activities of the cartilage extracts. In this respect, the observed anti-collagenolytic and anti-inflammatory activities, and the antagonistic effect of cellular differenciation mediated by the induction of Protein Kinase C in keratinocytes have been considered as opening avenues to the use of the shark cartilage extracts in compositions and methods for the reduction of inflammation, the regulation of wrinkle or skin atrophy, the retardation of premature aging, the reduction of acne, the improvement of skin barrier function, the reduction of inflammation or irritation and a skin soothing effect. Such methods are under the scope of this invention. Furthermore, since the shark cartilage liquid extract has been successfully tested in cancer, arthritis, psoriasis and acne cases, compositions and methods for treating diseases or conditions having one or more components selected from the group consisting of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation and collagenolysis, are under the scope of this invention.
Chondroitin Sulphate C (From Shark Cartilage):
Chemical Name: Alternating Copoly(ß-Glucuronic Acid-[1-3]-N-Acetyl-ß-Galactosamine-6-Sulphate-[1-4])
Molecular Formula: (C14H19O14N·S·Na2)·n (Sodium Salt)
Molecular Weight: 503.35·n (Na+)